of a simple
Velox may be safely manipu-
lated ten feet from the ordinary
__ . Velox is the original "gas light" or
, developing-out paper. Up to the time
. tn . e . Velox was introduced (1889) the
lgina amateur photographer was practical-
ly dependent on daylight and the more or less
slow printing-out papers, and on dark, cloudy
days printing had to be entirely suspended.
When Velox was first introduced most photo-
graphers were skeptical as to results and could
comprehend neither the economic nor the artistic
possibilities of the new product.
A careful trial proved its value and soon
Velox was almost universally used whenever the
saving of time was important.
To the amateur Velox was especially wel-
come, as its speed afforded ample time for
making prints and its various surfaces gave
opportunity to produce artistic results previous-
The fact that prints could be made at any
time of day or night, by any light, quickly
popularized this product among the users of
. , Velox is suitable for every class of
*Tn w-if WOI *k» as is fully demonstrated under
Dility the heading of "Surfaces and
Grades." Velox should not be confused with
Bromide or any other paper; it has distinctive
qualities of its own which have never been
successfully imitated. Many improvements
have recently been made in its manufacture
and to-day Velox is the perfected product of
years of experimennt.
The different surfaces and grades in which it
is manufactured enable the user to produce
good prints from almost any negative, suiting
his taste as well as the peculiar requirements
of the negatives.
Surfaces Velox * s made in six different sur-
and faces and divided broadly into two
Grades g rades °f papers, called "Regular"
and "Special." As these trade terms
have reference to speed and contrast and not
surface, we could as well say "slow" and "fast"
or "hard" and "soft." In each grade will be
found a variety of surfaces. Choose the surface
which best suits you and which will harmonize
with the subject of your picture. Select your
negatives, remembering that the "Regular"
papers print slowly, but develop quickly, and
are adapted for negatives lacking contrast, and
known as " thin " or " weak " negatives.
"Special" papers require shorter exposure and
longer development (as compared with the
"Regular") and are for use with "contrasty"
negatives. Such negatives are also referred to
as being strong, thick, dense or hard.
Royal Velox differs from the other Velox
papers in that it is coated on a stock having a
cream tint, just a soft mellow tone that pre-
vents harshness in the high lights. The stock
is somewhat heavier than the usual Velox stock,
about half-way between the single and the
Royal Velox prints are delightful when de-
veloped in the ordinary way, but to get their
full value should be re-developed. See page 27.
Royal Velox is furnished in both "Regular"
and "Special," but in one weight of paper only.
Any negatives which will produce good re-
sults with printing-out paper should be printed
on Special, while Regular Velox is adapted to
negatives which are too soft for other photo-
graphic papers, or when hard, contrasty prints
To those familiar with Velox paper it is an
easy matter to select the grade which is best
suited for the results desired. The novice, how-
ever, is guided usually by the advice of others
and often is misled into using a wrong grade of
Velox, thereby failing to secure the results ex-
pected, and is inclined to believe that the paper
is at fault. The following table of grades and
weights of Velox should be an aid to those
contemplating using this paper:
SURFACES, WEIGHTS AND GRADES OF VELOX
* Glossy Velox
^Furnished also in Double Weight Velox;
double weight papers require no mount and
when printed under a mask which will insure a
white margin, afford a very artistic effect.
In order that the beginner may understand
and be fully informed, the following glossary
has been compiled, including all technical terms
indispensable in describing the characteristics
and manipulation of Velox:
Black lines or markings produced on the
surface of photographic paper by rubbing
The "actinic rays' ' of light are those which
produce chemical changes or photographic
Bubbles on sensitized surface of prints, pro-
duced by immersing the paper too quickly,
or face down in the developer.
A term applied to a toning, developing or
(See article on page 32.)
A device for securing a high gloss or
polish on certain photographic papers.
As applied to Nepera liquid preparations
means that the chemicals which comprise
them have been dissolved in the least
possible quantity of water. (See pages
15 and 16.)
A term applied to prints meaning hard,
"chalky," extremely black shadows and
white highlights; lacking in detail as
applied to negatives.
Applied to negatives which have been over-
Anhydrous. Dry powder, not crystals. Ap-
plied to chemical salts from which all water
has been removed.
Developing- Out Paper or D. O. P.
Sensitized paper upon which the photo-
graphic image is invisible until development
has taken place. Applied to "gaslight"
papers or those printed by artificial light.
Generally applied to papers which require
longer exposure than Bromide papers.
Light which does not strike directly, but is
arrested and diffused by some medium such
as ground glass.
To dodge is to prevent light from striking
a portion of a negative when printing by
shading that portion with some opaque
The sensitized coating which receives the
image impressed through action of light
A device for producing prints having coun-
The act of submitting sensitized surfaces
to the action of light.
Fix, Fixing Out.
To settle or establish permanency of prints
or negatives by destroying light sensitive-
ness. (See Hypo.)
Weak or thin, lacking contrast. (Applied
to prints or negatives.)
Prolonging development of under-exposed
prints, films or plates.
Ferro Tin, Ferrotype Plate.
Thin plates of Japanned iron especially
prepared for squeegeeing prints.
Peculiar white markings caused by incor-
rect developing solutions. (See article,
Dim, grayish color produced by white light
striking the paper before or during devel-
opment. Hazy, dim appearance in lights
and shadows, due to an error in the pre-
paration of developer, or may be caused by
impure condition of chemicals used. (See
All gradations between highlights and deep-
A receptacle for measuring liquids. Ne-
pera Solutions are contained in graduated
Contrasty, lacking detail. Applied to neg-
atives or prints.
(See Velox Liquid Hardener, page 18.)
Brightest or whitest parts of an image.
The denser portions of a negative or the
lightest parts of a print.
An instrument for testing the specific
gravity of liquids. (In photography, the
Hyposulphite of soda. (See page 17.)
Refers to the limits within which exposure
or development can safely be carried on.
Appearance of an incorrect fixing bath.
Often the result of using impure chemicals.
The picture obtained in the camera by ex-
posing a specially prepared glass plate or
film, which when developed produces a re-
versed image and color, — right for left and
black for white.
Is known photographically as being a light
which has no effect on sensitized surfaces.
As applied to developer — a deterioration
due to the presence of oxygen. An oxi-
dized developer is dark in color and usually
causes discoloration of the print.
Too long exposure to printing light.
Too long a time in the developing solution.
P. O. P. or Printing-Out Paper.
Sensitized paper upon which the image be-
comes visible on printing and is made per-
manent by toning and fixing.
A specially constructed frame for making
prints. Holds the negative and sensitive
paper in contact while printing.
A term used in contradistinction to nega-
A substance which, having been dissolved,
is again separated from its solvent and
thrown to the bottom of the vessel con-
The thinner portions of a negative or the
darker portions of a print.
Placing wet prints face down on ferrotype
plates to obtain high polish.
Usually a strip of soft rubber set in a
handle, or a rubber roller, and used to
place a print in contact with the ferrotype
(See ferrotype plates.)
Term applied to print or negative; refers
to lack of brilliancy or contrast. A "soft"
print will contain all possible detail.
A light frame covered with cheese cloth
on which prints may be laid to dry. (See
Touching out spots or defects in finished
prints with fine sable brush and India ink
or spotting colors.
Ten Per Cent. Solution.
Approximately a solution made by dissolv-
ing one ounce (by weight) of dry chemical
in nine fluid ounces of water.
The shade, hue or degree of color prevail-
ing in a negative or print.
Too short an exposure for perfect results.
Thin, soft, lifeless, lacking contrast.
Velox prints may be successfully made, using
daylight for exposure, but we strongly recom-
mend that artificial light be used, as it is much
more uniform, and it will therefore be easier to
obtain satisfactory prints. Select a north win-
dow, if possible, as the light from this direction
will be more uniform. Owing to its sensitive-
ness the paper should be handled in very sub-
dued light, otherwise it will be liable to fog.
Proper precautions should be taken to pull
down the window shades and darken the room
sufficiently during manipulation. To test your
working light, place an unexposed sheet of
Special Velox, emulsion side up, on your work
table in the same position that your developing
tray occupies cover one-half of it with a sheet
of cardboard, and let it remain there two
minutes, then develop it. If the half of
the sheet which was uncovered turns gray or
black, and the covered portion remains white,
it is a positive indication that the light you
are using is too strong. If, however, the entire
sheet remains white your light is safe. Never
handle Velox in a light which will not stand
this test. If the light is too strong for print-
ing it should be subdued or diffused by the
use of several thicknesses of white tissue
paper. In the following instructions for man-
ipulating Velox, it must be understood that
artificial light, preferably gas with a Welsbach
burner, will be the light used. A kerosene
lamp, fitted with a round burner (known as
Rochester burner), may be used, but owing
to the decidedly yellow light this affords, a
considerably longer exposure will be necessary
than when using a Welsbach light.
The comparative exposure with Regular and
Special Velox with various sources of light is as
4 x 5 or
4 x 5 or
This table is only approximate, as owing to
the different lights used and the varying den-
sities of negatives it is impossible to give an
absolute rule. It serves, however, as a guide
to enable the beginner to approximate the
correct exposure. From this obtain the cor-
rect time, always being guided by the rule
as to time of development given at top of
Printing- ^ ne aDsom t e necessities for making
Reauisites ^ elox P rmts are ^ ew m number
^ and simple in character. Either
daylight or artificial light are of course essen-
tial, also developing solutions and water for
washing the prints. The ordinary printing
frame is used in making exposures. The artis-
tic possibilities of Velox make it worthy of the
study of all photographers and a convenient
apparatus for measuring the distance from the
light and for adjusting each negative to the
proper angle of exposure is of ereat assistance.
As an aid we recommend the Velox Amateur
Printer, not only to help those who are already
making good Velox prints, but to assist the
beginner in mastering the delightful art of
Velox printing in the shortest possible time.
The construction of the Velox printer is
simple and it is furnished with attachments for
use either with gas or electricity.
Aside from suitable light and work room,
you will require:
3 trays, preferably enameled iron (a full
size larger than the prints to be made).
1 printing frame (and glass to fit, if films
are to be printed.)
1 4-oz. graduate.
1 bottle Nepera Solution.
1 bottle Velox Liquid Hardener.
1 lb. Crystal or Granulated Hypo.
1 package each Regular and Special Velox.
Arrange the three trays before you on your
work table in this order:
2 ozs. Nepera
4 ozs. Water
4 ozs. Hypo
16 ozs. Water
i oz. Hardener
In the center of the above spaces we have
indicated the solution which each tray should
contain for developing Regular Velox. If
Special is used, double the quantity of water
should be added to the developer (Tray No.
1). Do not be too sparing of the amount of
the solutions used, especially of your fixing
bath (Tray No. 3) ; if making three or four
dozen prints (4 x 5) use a full pint (see
formula, page 18) ; and do not keep it after
using, as a fresh bath will give best results.
Proper temperature is important and for best
results the developer should be 70 degrees Fahr.
and the fixing bath and wash water 50 degrees
Fahr. If the developer exceeds 70 degrees the
prints are liable to fog and the emulsion soften.
If too cold, chemical action is retarded, result-
ing in flat, weak prints.
You are now ready for exposure and
Printing the printing frame should be filled.
Place the sensitized side of the sheet
of Velox against the film side of the negative,
the paper curls slightly, the sensitive side being
Concave. An absolute test is to bite the corner
of the sheet, the sensitive side will adhere to the
Place the printing frame the correct distance
from the artificial light used, holding the frame
away from the burner a distance equal to the
diagonal of the negative. To prove that the
light is evenly diffused at the point selected
for exposure, take a piece of white cardboard,
the size of the negative, and move its position
with reference to the light, until you find the
shortest distance at which an even illumination
is secured. A few seconds exposure will be re-
quired when printing an average negative on
Special Velox. Regular Velox needs from four
to five times as much exposure as Special, if in
using both grades the printing frame is held at
the same distance from the light. We suggest
that before making the first exposure the cut-
ting of a piece of Velox paper into strips about
an inch wide and placing one of them over an
important part of the negative, make the ex-
posure, using your best judgment as to the dis-
tance from the light and the time of printing.
Develop it, and if not satisfactory try another
strip, varying the time as indicated by the first
result. When the desired effect is secured, you
can make any number of prints from the same
negative, and if the time of exposure, distance
from light as well as the time of developing are
identical, all the prints should be equally good.
By comparing your other negatives with the
one you have tested, you will be able to make a
fairly accurate estimate of exposure required
by any negative.
After taking the exposed piece of paper from
the printing frame, in a safe place previously
selected, it is ready for development. Xhs &W
print should be immersed face up in the devel-
oper (Tray No. 1) and quickly and evenly cov-
ered with the solution. Regular Velox should
be developed to the proper depth in from fifteen
to twenty seconds; Special, about thirty seconds.
With our prepared liquid developers, the addi-
tion of Bromide of Potassium is unnecessary,
the correct proportion being in the solution.
As soon as the image has reached the desired
depth remove from the developer to the tray
(No. 2) and rinse for a moment, turning the
print several times, then place it in the acid
fixing bath (Tray No. 3), keeping the print
moving for a few seconds, the same as was
done when rinsing, so as to give even and
thorough fixing, preventing stains and other
troubles. Leave the print in this solution
until thoroughly fixed; this will take about
fifteen minutes. When fixed remove from the
fixing bath and wash thoroughly for about an
hour in running water, then dry. After dry-
ing, prints may be trimmed and mounted.
You should be systematic in working, re-
membering that cleanliness is essential in pho-
tography. Care must be taken to prevent the
Hypo in any way getting into the tray contain-
ing the developer. Have a clean towel when be-
ginning the work and wipe your hands each
time after you have handled prints in Hypo
, Velox requires a special devel-
^ -Notes on ^ oper and should not be used
Development w ^ h one made for plate and
film development only. (Nepera Solution, how-
ever, is a universal developer — see page 16.)
Various developing agents are used in the
production of Velox prints and are marketed
under different trade names, such as Amidol,
Ortol, Edinol, Metol and Hydroquinone, etc.
Amidol affords a very blue-black tone, but
owing to rapid oxidation, a fresh solution
should be mixed each time prints are to be
made. Ortol and Edinol afford very satis-
factory results. It has been proved, however,
that Metol and Hydroquinone in combination
yield the very best results on Velox when used
in the proportion given in our formula. Owing
to the difficulty many have in securing abso-
lutely pure chemicals and the trouble and
subsequent loss of material to those attempting
to compound their own developers, we recom-
mend the use of our liquid developers, Nepera
Solution and N. A. Velox Liquid Developer,
for Velox papers. To those who prefer to
prepare their own solution, we advise the
M-Q De- (Dissolve chemicals in the order
veloper named. )
Water 10 ozs. =300 c. c.
Metol 7 grains = j^ gramme
Hydroquinone 30 grains = 2 grammes
Sulphite Soda (desiccated) 110 grains = 7 grammes
Carbonate Soda (desiccated) .200 grains = 13 grammes
10 percent, solution Bromide Potassium. .40 drops = 40 drops
This solution will keep indefinitely if placed
in bottles filled to the neck and tightly corked.
It should be used full strength for "Regular
Velox," but should be diluted with equal parts
of water when "Special" papers are developed.
' . __ 1 This is an excellent ready to use,
J~' .^ 0X concentrated developer for Velox
-Liquid papers. Unlike any other devel-
oper oper, it has certain qualities
which make it unique in photographic work.
N. A. (non-abrasion) means that all abrasion
or friction marks, to which all glossy develop-
ing-out papers are particularly susceptible,
will be prevented by this solution. Another
feature is the guide it gives to thorough fixing —
the print is not absolutely fixed until the canar\
yellow color entirely disappears by fixing in
a correctly prepared Acid Hypo Bath. This
developer yields the softest possible prints
when undiluted and it is well to remember
that THE STRONGER THE DEVELOPER, THE SOFTER
The following formula should be used for
N. A. Velox Liquid Developer 1 oz.
Water 4 ozs.
Developer for Regular Velox:
N. A. Velox Liquid Developer 2 ozs.
Water 4 ozs.
It is important that the temperature of the
developing solution should be 70 degrees Fahr.
In summer, if found necessary to cool the de-
veloper, do not place ice in the solution, as it
will dilute it. Place the tray containing devel-
oper into one of larger size, packing ice around
it. N. A. DEVELOPER SHOULD NOT BE
USED FOR DEVELOPING PLATES,
FILMS OR BROMIDE PAPERS.
This is known as the "universal"
Nepera developer because it may be used
Solution not only for Velox, but Azo, Bro-
mide paper, films or plates. Like
all Nepera Liquids, it is a concentrated solu-
tion with the combination of purest chemicals
which will give the best results. It differs from
N. A. Velox Liquid Developer in that it does
not possess the non-abrasion and fixing-guide
properties; but on the other hand, when used
in combination with Nepera Capsules, it is ex-
cellent for films or plates, giving negatives of
the quality best suited for developing-out paper.
For Regular Velox use:
Nepera Solution 2 ozs.
Water 4 ozs.
For Special Velox use :
Nepera Solution 1 oz.
Water 4 ozs.
The temperature of the bath should be 70° Fahr.
For Bromide papers use:
Nepera Solution 1 oz.
Water 6 ozs.
For Film in Kodak Film Tank or Kodak
Developing Machine use:
Nepera Solution V 2 oz.
Water 12 ozs.
Contents of one Nepera Capsule.
Develop for twenty minutes.
Without Tank or Developing Machine, using
factorial system, 10 is the factor, use:
Nepera Solution y 2 oz.
Water 12 ozs.
Contents of one Nepera Capsule.
Temperature should be 60 degrees Fahr.
Sodium Hypo-Sulphite (or Hypo as
Fixing commercially termed) may be ob-
tained for use in either a granulated
or crystal form. Its purpose is to dissolve the
silver salts which have not been acted upon by
light. The importance of this chemical is evi-
dent, but it is probable that no part or process
of photography is more abused than that of
correctly preparing a fixing bath and properly
fixing prints. To secure permanency prints
must be fixed in a fresh, acid fixing bath. When
Hypo is first dissolved in water, the tempera-
ture of the solution is materially reduced. It
is important that the temperature of a fixing
bath should be maintained as near to 50 degrees
Fahr. as possible. Probably more prints change
color from insufficient fixing than lack of
washing, so these points should be given atten-
tion. Have plenty of solution strong enough
to thoroughly fix prints in at least fifteen
minutes. Always use the acid hardener in the
bath, as it will overcome the tendency of the
fixing bath to cause blisters and stains, and
move the prints about for the first few seconds
after immersion to stop the action of the de-
veloper at once over the entire surface of the
Our formula for preparing the Acid Hypo
fixing bath is as follows:
Water 64 ozs .
Hyposulphite of Soda (crystal or
granulated) 16 ozs.
When thoroughly dissolved, add the follow-
ing hardening solution, dissolving the chemicals
separately and in the order named:
Water 5 ozs>
Sulphite of Soda (desiccated) % oz.
Acetic Acid No. 8 (containing 25
per cent, pure acid) 3 ozs.
Powdered Alum 1 oz.
This solution will keep, and one pint of it
will fix at least one-half gross of 4 x 5 prints.
If sulphite and carbonate of soda in crystal
form are substituted for desiccated, double
the quantities mentioned should be used.
Amateurs will find it is advisable to use our
prepared solutions and the concentrated Velox
Liquid Hardener is especially recommended.
Water 16 ozs.
Hyposulphite of Soda 4 ozs.
Velox Liquid Hardener 1 oz.
The finished prints must be en-
Notes tirely free from Hypo. To wash
on a batch of 100 4 x 5 prints, using
Washing two trays of suitable size and
transferring each print separately
from one tray to the other, changing the water
at least twelve times, will take a full hour for
the process. In running water where the prints
can be kept constantly moving so that each in-
dividual print has a thorough washing, from
one-half to one hour, according to the number
of prints, will be required. Prints do not wash
if piled in a bunch in a tray and the water
simply runs in at one end of the tray and out
of the other. In some localities where there is
an excessive amount of iron or impurity in
water, the whites in the prints may have a
slight yellowish tone. Prints should not be
allowed to wash any longer than is necessary
to completely free them from hypo. The tem-
perature of the water in winter should be kept
as uniform as possible, as ice cold water will
cause blistering. When running water is used
for washing, the stream should not be allowed
to fall directly on the prints as it will cause
breaks in the fibre of the paper, producing
blisters. Place a tumbler or graduate in the
washing tray and allow the water to run into
it and overflow into the tray. To determine
when the print is thoroughly free from hypo,
the following test formula may be success-
Permanganate of Potash 8 gr.
Caustic Soda 7 gr.
Water (distilled) 8 ozs.
Fill a glass with pure water to which you
have added 3 or 4 drops of the potash solution.
Then take a couple of prints from the wash-
water and allow the water from the prints to
drip into the glass. If hypo is present, the
violet color of the water in the glass will change
to a slight greenish tint in from five to seven
minutes. In such case return prints to the
washwater to remain until similar tests show
that the hypo has been entirely eliminated.
After prints have been thoroughly
Drying washed, remove from the wash-
water and place on a clean glass in
a pile face down and press out superfluous
water. Then lay out separately, face down on
cheese-cloth stretchers. These may be con-
structed by making a frame work of light wood
and tacking unbleached cheese-cloth tightly
over it. Prints dried in this manner will curl
but a trifle.
If stretchers are not to be had, dry the prints
face down on clean, uncolored cloths, or towels,
which are free from lint.
Never Dry Velox prints between blotters or
on papers. They are likely to stick and cause
Glossy and Special Glossy Velox
Enameled prints can be burnished or squee-
Surface j geed. Take prints from the wash-
Paper I water and place face down on a
fa ferrotype tin, squeegee into abso-
lute contact and allow to become bone dry,
when they will peel off with the desired luster.
If the tin has been in use for some time, por-
tions of prints may stick; to prevent this, pre-
pare the tins as follows:
Dissolve ten grains of beeswax in one ounce
of benzine ; allow this to stand for a few hours,
in which time a precipitate will be formed. The
clear solution should be used for polishing the
tins, applying to the surface of the ferrotype
plate with a soft cloth (canton flannel). When
the surface of the tin has been thoroughly cov-
ered with this preparation, the tin should be
polished with a piece of dry canton flannel to
remove as much of the beeswax as possible. As
beeswax varies in its composition to a certain
extent, the solution may vary somewhat in con-
sistency so that an addition of benzine may be
necessary to permit polishing the tins easily.
Clean the tins occasionally with scalding
water, in order to remove any particles of
gelatine which may remain on them from for-
Velox prints should be trimmed
Mounting to size desired before mounting.
They should be dry and perfectly
flat for trimming, and a trimming board should
be used instead of a knife or ruler, for with the
board absolutely true edges may be obtained.
The simplest and most satisfactory way to
mount prints is by using the Kodak Dry Mount-
ing Tissue, as by this process the prints are
mounted in absolute contact and will not curl
even on the thinnest mounts, — especially ad-
vantageous in multiple mounting.
Two prints may be mounted back to back,
and being free from curl can then be used as an
The Kodak Dry Mounting Tissue is dry and
not sticky to handle, mounting is accomplished
quickly and no time is lost waiting for prints to
dry after mounting.
Any size print may be mounted with the tis-
sue, and as the tissue is water-proof there is no
possibility of the print becoming stained from
any chemical in the mount stock.
To use the tissue, lay a print on its face and
tack to its back a piece of the tissue of the
same size, by applying the point of a hot iron to
small spots at opposite ends.
Turn the print face up and trim print and
tissue to desired size. Place in proper position
on mount, cover the print with a piece of
smooth paper and press the whole surface with
a hot flat iron; press, don't rub.
The iron should be just hot enough to siss
when touched with a wet finger. If the iron is
too hot the tissue will stick to the mount and
not to the print; if too cold, the tissue will
stick to the print and not to the mount.
Remedy — lower or raise the temperature of
the iron and apply it again.
For mounting with paste the following plan
is best to employ:
After prints are trimmed, immerse them in
a tray of clean water, allowing them to soak
long enough to become thoroughly limp. Re-
move to a good sized piece of clean glass,
placing them in a pile face down. Cover with
a piece of clean blotting paper and with a
roller squeegee press all the superfluous water
from the pile. Then with a good bristle paste
brush apply a thin, even coating of starch
paste. Raise the print by taking hold of the
two opposite corners and turning it over, place
in position on the mount. Lay a clean, dry
blotter over the print and with the roller press
into contact. Any lint or fuzz from the blotter,
or any paste on the surface of the print should
be immediately removed with a soft sponge
or dampened cloth. Any imperfections in the
finished print may be corrected by spotting,
using a fine sable brush and spotting color of
India ink. Care should be exercised to select
mounts which harmonize with the tone of the
print If Sepia prints are to be mounted, any
shade of brown or some of the deeper reds
may be used, but these same mounts would not
be suitable for black and white tones. For
the black and white prints any shade of gray,
carbon black, buff or cream color may be suc-
Double weight papers may be mounted solid,
but are best used for folder effects. A very
artistic way of making prints with the Double
Weight is to use a sheet of paper considerably
larger than the negative to be printed from.
This will necessitate the use of a larger frame
((jy 2 xSy2 or 8x10). Have a piece of clear glass
the full size of the frame and fasten your neg-
ative to the centre of this glass with strips of
gum paper, cut a mask of opaque paper the
full size of your glass and from the centre cut
an opening at least one-quarter of an inch
smaller than the size of the negative. Place the
mask in the printing frame between the paper
and the negative, then print and develop the ex-
posed paper in the usual way. This will give a
print with a very wide white margin and when
thoroughly dried and straightened, by using an
embossing board, an imprint or counter-sunk
margin about half an inch around the edges of
the print will give a fine etching or engraving
effect. Enclosed in a folder mount made of
cover paper of desirable tone, you have as artis-
tic a result as can be produced.
The process of making prints on
Finishing Velox Post Cards is identically the
Velox same as that for making Velox
prints. The cards are sensitized on
■ Post one side only and the reverse side
Cards is printed to conform with the Can-
adian postal regulations. A print-
ing frame and glass a size larger than the nega-
tive should be used, and the cut outs found
in each package of cards may be used for
masking the negative. Place the mask between
the negative and the sensitized side of the Post
Card and the result will be that when exposed,
developed and fixed the same as an ordinary
sheet of Velox paper, you will have your
picture at one end of the card surrounded with
a white edge of the part which was protected
by the opaque mask. Your negative should be
selected the same as when printing with Velox
paper and both Regular and Special Post Cards
should be used. Where contrast is desired, the
Regular Velvet or Regular Royal Post Cards
will give the best results and should always
be used with thin negatives; the Special Velvet,
Special Portrait, Special Rough, Special Glossy
and Special Royal Post Cards should be used
for stronger negatives and when soft effects
Effective and artistic work may be
Double done on Velox Post Cards by
Printing double printing. By this process
gray borders and ground may be
produced. The work requires careful and exact
cutting of the necessary opaque masks and
accurate registry of the cards when printing.
Provide a number of pieces of clear glass, cut
to size 5x7 (old negatives from which the
emulsion has been thoroughly cleaned by soak-
ing in a solution of hot water and salsoda are
suitable), also a few sheets of opaque paper
the same size (5 x 7). From one of these
papers make a mask as shown in Fig. 1.
Measure from edges A and B a space five-
eighths of an inch wide, then cut an opening
2x3 inches through which your negative and
card are to be exposed. Fasten the negative
with strips of adhesive paper to one of the
pieces of clear glass, placing that portion to
be printed directly under the opening in the
mask. Adjust glass, negative and mask in
printing frame, lay on the Velox Post Card,
sensitized side down, so that one end covers
the opening in the mask. Be careful to have
edges A and B of glass, mask and card fit
flush against the corresponding sides of the
printing frame. Expose to printing light, giv-
ing correct time required for a perfect print,
remove the entire outfit from the printing frame
and insert glass and matt No. 2, which you will
have previously prepared, as shown in Fig. 2.
From another piece of opaque paper 5x7 cut
an opening 3x5 inches and measure exact so
as to leave margins of one-quarter inch on the
sides A and B. Gum this matt securely to an-
other glass, then cut a piece of opaque paper
2^4 x 3% inches and gum this in clear space at
a distance of exactly one-half inch from edges
A and B. Place this entire outfit in printing
frame, lay on Velox Post Card, previously ex-
posed under No. 1 matt, fit edges flush into the
corner of the frame and expose. This second
exposure should be just enough to produce the
desired tint, governing time by grade of Velox
used. If the exposure has been too great the
border will be dark, if under-exposed the bor-
der tint will be light. A little practice may be
necessary in order to secure the tint desired.
Now, if you have made all measurements ac-
curately and exposure and development have
been correct, you will have in a finished post
card your picture 2 x 3 in size surrounded by a
gray border one-quarter of an inch wide on top
and one side, one-half inch wide at bottom and
one and one-half on other side. The tint of this
border should be a slaty gray and should har-
monize with the black tone of your print.
Other forms, such as ovals and circles, may
be made and the process for their making is
the same as already described.
Shaded portion represents opaque paper. White
portion shows part cut out.
Shaded portion represents opaque paper,
portion shows part cut out.
Q . »p n „ oc There are occasions when it is
!£ vinS desirable to modify the tone of
on Velox ^ r i . . j j.
Velox prints, in order to secure
some effect more in keeping with the subject
than the original color produced by develop-
ment only. The Sepia tone is permanent and
may be secured in various ways, but we will
describe only two of these: the first known as
the hypo-alum process, and the second, Velox
Re-development. The hypo-alum process is a
slow and somewhat uncertain way of obtaining
good results and consists of a solution of hypo
and powdered alum in boiling water, into
which, when cooled, the prints are immersed
and left until the desired tone has been reached.
The process requires from one to twelve hours
and is uncertain in exact results. The Velox
Re-development process will give the best re-
sults in a much shorter time, yielding equally
pleasing and permanent tones. Prints on any
grade or surface of Velox, except glossy,
afford most pleasing tones when re-developed,
but re-development is perhaps specially advan-
tageous for prints on Royal Velox, as the
process brings out and accentuates the full
value of the soft, creamy stock upon which
Royal Velox is coated; the finished prints pos-
sessing an almost indescribable softness and
Velox prints of any grade or surface which
have been evenly and thoroughly fixed and
washed will give desirable results with the Re-
developer, but some subjects, such as marines
and snow scenes, are best rendered in the black
and white. Landscapes, autumn scenes and
portraits are given greater artistic values by
the warmth of tone which the Re-developer
A package of Re-developer consists of a box
of 14 Capsules and a bottle of Solution. Each
Capsule contains chemicals which require only
the addition of a certain quantity of water and
a few drops pure aqua ammonia to make a
bleaching bath for the reduction of the print
before re-development. The liquid contained in
the bottle is highly concentrated and should be
used carefully, the entire contents of a 4 oz.
bottle being sufficient to re-develop about four
hundred 4x5 Velox prints. It is important
that the prints should have been thoroughly
washed so that no trace of hypo remains.
Placing the black and white print in the bleach-
ing solution, let it remain until all trace of
black has disappeared from the shadows; it
should then be removed and rinsed thoroughly
in fresh water, then placed in the re-developing
solution, where the faint image immediately
changes to a warm brown tone, gradually deep-
ening until all its former brilliancy returns,
but changed to a Sepia tone instead of black
and white. A final washing is then given the
print, the whole process requiring only a short
time, so the advantages of using this over the
hypo-alum process are quite evident.
Velox Re-developer will also produce excel-
lent Sepia tones on any Bromide or gas-light
paper; the age of the print does not seemingly
make any difference in the tones obtainable.
Best results are obtained from prints which
have a good bluish black tone, rather than a
green or olive tone, such as is produced by the
use of too much Bromide. Both the bleaching
and re-developing baths will retain their strength
for some time, if kept in well stopped bottles.
If the prints show a tendency to blister, it
doubtless comes from not having used sufficient
hardener in the fixing bath when making the
black and white prints. Too strong a solution
of Re-developer or too long immersion in this
solution will also cause blisters. After re-
development and before the final washing the
prints may be immersed in a hardening bath
composed of Velox Liquid Hardener, 1 ounce;
water, 16 ounces. This will correct any ten-
dency to blister.
The use of pure aqua ammonia is recom-
mended and the ordinary household ammonia
should be avoided. This chemical clears the
whites and does not change the tone unless an
excessive amount is used.
The negative must be thoroughly
How to washed and freed from any trace
Make of hypo. Immerse a piece of Velox
Prints paper in clean water for a few
from Wet seconds, then placing it on the film
Negatives s ^ e °f * ne we * negative squeegee
it carefully so as not to break the
film. Expose without the use of a printing
frame. After exposure place both negative and
paper in water, allowing them to soak for a
moment before trying to separate them. De-
velop and fix the print in the usual way.
Ordinary gloss starch dissolved in
How to just enough cold water to make a
Make thick solution is prepared, and
Good enough boiling water poured into
Starch it so it thickens in a clear, trans-
Paste lucent jelly. Set aside and when
cool remove the skin which forms
and use the clear paste.
To Rub the surface of the dry print
Remove with a tuft of cotton wet with
Friction wood-alcohol. Do not rub hard
Marks enough to break the surface of the
from film and be careful to have the
Glossy print on some level surface, such
Velox as a piece of glass.
Prints ]sj # a. Velox Liquid Developer
entirely prevents abrasion marks.
After a careful perusal of the instructions
given in this Velox Book you should be able
to produce satisfactory results on any grade
of Velox paper.
Causes of Non-Success
By consulting the following causes of failure
you will probably be able to locate any trouble
you may have had.
Paper found to be defective through fault in
manufacture will be exchanged free of charge,
if returned before the expiration date which is
stamped upon each package.
If you are unsuccessful and believe that you
have defective paper, return the unexposed
sheets in original package, together with a print
showing nature of the defect, and we will make
a test, notifying you promptly as to the cause
of your non-success.
Prints are too black.
Negative too weak or thin.
Insufficient Bromide of Potassium.
Perhaps wrong grade of paper used, try
Regular Velvet Velox.
Prints are too light, lack detail.
Negatives too dense for Regular paper.
Use Special Velvet, or Special Portrait
Grayish whites throughout entire print.
Chemical or light fog.
Insufficient Bromide of Potassium in de-
Grayish Mottled or granulated appearance of edges
or entire print.
Under-exposure, forced development.
Paper kept in damp place.
Chemical Fumes, Ammonia, etc.
Illuminating or coal gas.
Greenish or brownish tones sometimes mottled.
Developer too old or too weak.
Excess of Bromide of Potassium.
Greenish yellow stains noticed when N. A. Velox
Liquid Developer has been used.
Under-exposure and forcing.
Canary yellow stains produced when N. A. V. L. D.
has been used.
Fixes out entirely in correctly prepared
acid Hypo bath.
(See page 18 for formula.)
The entire disappearance of this color
insures correct fixing.
Brown or red stains.
Old or oxidized developer. (Never use de-
veloper after it is much discolored
or muddy.) Imperfect fixing.
Developer too warm.
Fixing bath lacks sufficient acid and prints
were not kept moving to allow even
fixing. (See page 18.)
Purple Discoloration. (Not frequent.)
Velox paper has been used as a printing-
Round white spots.
Air-bells on the surface of paper.
To avoid, develop prints face up, brushing
off any air-bells that may form.
Bound or irregular dark spots.
Caused by air-bells forming on the surface
of print when placed face down in
fixing bath, and failing to keep prints
White deposits all over surface of prints.
Milky Hypo bath.
If print is thoroughly washed and deposit
removed before drying it does no harm.
Correct fixing bath by adding more No. 8
Picture good, but surface covered with black marks.
Abrasion marks. (See page 15.)
Prints have been creased or broken while
Do not allow water from the tap to fall
directly on the prints.
Too strong acetic acid used in Hardener.
Too great difference between temperature
of solution and wash-water.
Fixing bath lacks sufficient hardener.
Never use a plain Hypo fixing bath; always
acidify with Velox Liquid Hardener.
Blisters occurring during re-development.
(See page 28.)
Picture develops irregularly and appears to
be covered with greasy streaks and
finger marks and gives the impression
that there are spots on the paper
which have never been coated. Of all
complaints received regarding Velox
paper, none are caused by any condi-
tion more annoying than this "freak"
trouble. It is annoying to the photo-
grapher because he feels sure the fault
is in the paper, and annoying to us
because we know that the fault lies in
incorrect solutions. We publish here-
with a half-tone of this curious effect.
It is in warm weather when the humid-
ity is great that these "freaks" most
Developed in M. Q. , half as strong as that
advised in instruction sheet.
Developed in M. Q., strength as
advised in instruction sheet.
Undoubtedly the paper absorbs moisture
unevenly and in certain spots becomes
repellent to the action of an incorrect
developer. In making up a developing
solution it is absolutely essential that
pure chemicals be used, and as Velox
requires a bath which contains nearly
twice as much Carbonate of Soda as
Sulphite of Soda, it is easy to see that
any mistake made in the proportion of
either chemical would be apt to cause
trouble. The remedy for "freaks" is to
throw out your developer and mix a
fresh solution, and if necessary use it
Yellowish whites when other than N. A. has been
Stain all over prints is result of under-
exposure and forcing.
Prints not kept moving for the first few
seconds after immersion in the acid
hypo fixing bath.
Too weak developer.
Insufficient washing after fixing.
Iron in wash-water — may come from rust
in water pipes.
Sea air will affect Velox, causing yellow
whites, so packages should not be left
open and prints should be developed
immediately after exposure.
The permanency of Velox prints
Permanency hag never Deen questioned. Per-
manency of any Velox print depends upon the
thoroughness of manipulation. It is beyond
question that with correct developer freshly
prepared and with thorough fixing and wash-
ing, Velox prints will be absolutely permanent.
Many dealers have sample prints which were
sent them years ago and have exposed them
continually to every conceivable atmospheric
condition. This is an unanswerable argument
in favor of Velox permanency.
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VELOX IN ROLLS FOR CIRKUT
Price List — Continued
Velox Post Cards — Regular Velvet, Special Velvet,
Special Portrait, Special Rough, Special Glossy, and
Regular and Special Royal, 20 cents per dozen;
$1.10 per % gross; $2.00 per gross.
These are pieces of Double Weight Velox, ^Vz^ 1 ^
inches, on the uncoated sides of which is printed
matter in accordance with the Canadian Postal Laws,
while the sensitive sides are to be treated in the
same way as the regular product.
Velox Double Post Cards, 3%xll inches, Velvet
(Special and Regular), Portrait (Special) and Rough
(Special), per dozen, 40 cents; % gross, $2.20;
Brownie Velox Post Cards, 2%x4 1 / 4, Velvet,
Special or Regular, per doz., 15c; half
gross, 80c. ; gross $1.50
N. A. Velox Liquid Developer, 4-oz. bottle
(makes 20 ozs. for Special, 12 ozs. for
N. A. Velox Liquid Developer, 16-oz. bottle. . $0.75
Non-Abrasion M. Q. Developer Tubes, per box
of 3 tubes 25
Nepera Solution, 4-oz. bottle, a Universal De-
veloper (see page 17) 20
Do., 16 ozs 60
Nepera Capsules, per doz 15
Nepera M. Q. tubes, Non-Abrasion, box of 5
Kodak Acid Fixing Powder, 1-lb. package 25
Do., V 2 lb 15
Do., V± lb 10
Velox Liquid Hardener, 8-oz. bottle (sufficient
to acidify 8 pints of Hypo Solution) 25
4-oz. bottle 15
Velox Re-developer, per package containing 14
capsules of bleaching agent and 4 ozs. of
Concentrated Re-developer 50
Do., 2-oz. bottle, per package 30
Carbonate of Soda (desiccated), per 1-lb.
Sulphite of Soda (desiccated), per 1-lb bottle .30
No. 1 Velox Amateur Printer 2.00
Welsbach Attachment (extra). Consisting of
burner, mantle and large chimney 1.25
Extra Mantles, each 15
Tubing, 6 ft. lengths. For connecting printer
with gas supply 50
Electric attachment (extra) comprising socket
and plug connected by 6 ft. cord 75
CANADIAN KODAK CO., LIMITED,
It's Poor Economy
to spoil good films, good
plates and good papers
with cheap chemicals
To be sure they're pure in-
sist on the mark that de-
notes the Kodak Quality:
CANADIAN KODAK CO.
With a Hot Iron
DRY MOUNTING TISSUE
Insures Absolute Contact
Without Curl, Even on
the Thinnest Mounts
CANADIAN KODAK CO.
:he danger signal
When the photographer fixes a negative
he can tell from its appearance whether or
not it IS fixed. With prints he has never
had any such guide — and many faded ones
have been the result.
But the N. A. Velox Liquid Developer
puts out a danger signal. It turns the print
a canary yellow, and the color does not dis-
appear until fixing is complete.
Fifteen minutes in the Acid Fixing Bath
will remove this color every time, unless
the bath has been weakened by overwork-
ing or has been too much diluted. If the
color remains the print isn't fixed— if it
disappears it is fixed, and, moreover, IT
WILL be permanent.
The yellow color on the prints has led
some people to believe that there is cyanide
in the N. A. Developer. This is positively
not the case. It contains no cyanide or
other dangerous poison.
The N. A. Developer absolutely does
away with abrasion marks on Glossy Velox.
Velox, N. A. Velox Liquid Developer,
Velox Hardener — they work best together.
CANADIAN KODAK CO., Limited,